Staff Augmentation Service – Enhancing Business Outcomes

5 min read
Staff augmentation puzzles

At ID AL. Solutions, we closely monitor the latest IT market trends, which indicate that companies—whether product-based or service-oriented—are consistently faced with the need to keep pace with rapid technological advancements while also managing their budgets effectively and maximizing efficiency. In this article, we want to highlight a strategic solution increasingly adopted by businesses, and one in which our company specializes: IT staff augmentation. This approach allows companies to add skilled technical professionals to their teams on an as-needed basis, enhancing their ability to scale projects quickly and efficiently without the overhead costs of hiring full-time staff.

So, what is a staff augmentation service? It’s a flexible outsourcing strategy that enables businesses to hire tech talent and manage augmented team members as part of their in-house team. Unlike traditional outsourcing, where entire projects are handed off to another company, staff augmentation brings additional professionals to work under the company’s direction. This method helps businesses address specific skill gaps or increase their output in response to client demands or market opportunities.

Staff augmentation provides companies with the ability to scale their teams up or down based on the current business requirements. This flexibility is crucial for managing project flows and timelines effectively. By opting for staff augmentation, companies can avoid the long-term costs associated with permanent hires such as elevated taxes, benefits, office space, and equipment. It allows for budget flexibility and control, as augmented staff can be hired for specific periods depending on project needs.

ID AL. Solutions generally provides highly skilled specialists from Ukraine as part of the aforementioned service. Ukrainian IT professionals are renowned for their high level of expertise, particularly in software development, testing, design, cybersecurity, and data management. Despite their high skill level, the cost of hiring these professionals is generally lower compared to their counterparts in Western countries. This presents an opportunity for businesses to access premium skills at a more reasonable price, ensuring a superior price-quality ratio. To put it in perspective, the average annual salary of a middle back-end software engineer in Ukraine is between $25,000 and $30,000, while in Germany, such specialists earn between $55,000 and $70,000 a year. This means that European and Western businesses can augment their teams with twice as many people compared to local hires.

Besides the purely financial component, Ukrainian professionals are known for their strong work ethic and high level of motivation. They are eager to engage in challenging projects that allow them to utilize their skills and grow professionally. This intrinsic motivation translates into higher productivity and innovation, benefiting the projects they are involved in.

Another significant benefit is that with staff augmentation, companies can focus on their core competencies while leaving the recruitment and administrative support to the augmentation provider. This not only saves time but also ensures that the in-house team can remain focused on strategic goals.

At ID AL. Solutions, we have established strong connections within the Ukrainian and global IT sector, enabling us to source the best talent for your specific needs. With broad experience in the field, we understand the intricacies of integrating skilled professionals with existing teams seamlessly and effectively. We quickly identify the right talent to match specific project requirements, ensuring that our clients receive the best possible support throughout their project lifecycle. Our approach is designed to ensure that our clients not only meet but exceed their project goals while optimizing costs and enhancing output.

For companies looking to stay competitive in the dynamic tech industry, staff augmentation offers a strategic advantage by providing flexibility, cost efficiency, and access to a broad range of skills. ID AL. Solutions stands ready to help businesses leverage these benefits to not only keep pace with industry changes but also to drive significant growth and innovation.

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Java/Kotlin: Strategic Choice for Back-end Development in 2024

7 min read
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In an ever-evolving technological landscape, choosing the right back-end language for web and custom software development is crucial for business success and the viability of the developed software product. At ID AL. Solutions, we firmly believe in the power and relevance of Java and Kotlin in 2024. Here’s why.

Java, established over two decades ago, has stood the test of time, demonstrating remarkable stability and maturity. Its robustness and efficiency make it a preferred choice for enterprise-scale applications. Java’s well-established ecosystem, with a vast array of libraries and frameworks, ensures that we can build highly reliable and secure applications for our clients. Furthermore, our core team has over 6 years of development experience in Java, which has provided us with ample time and knowledge to master all aspects of the language.

Kotlin, a more recent player, has quickly become a favorite due to its modern features and seamless interoperability with Java. It brings innovations and improvements, such as null safety and extension functions, making development faster and more efficient. Kotlin’s concise syntax reduces the possibility of code errors, ensuring a higher quality in the final product.

Both Java and Kotlin are backed by strong communities. This means a vast pool of resources, forums, and expert support, crucial for resolving issues swiftly and keeping up with the latest trends and best practices. This community support translates into a more reliable and future-proof technology stack for your business.

For businesses looking to grow, scalability is key. Java and Kotlin excel in building scalable applications, capable of handling increasing loads with ease. Their performance, especially in handling large-scale, complex applications, is unparalleled, making them ideal for businesses that anticipate growth. Another main benefit of Java/Kotlin is that it is platform-independent, meaning that it can run on any operating system. This makes it an ideal choice for businesses that need to develop cross-platform applications.

From web applications to Android mobile apps, Java and Kotlin’s versatility covers a wide spectrum of development needs. This flexibility allows us to tailor solutions that align perfectly with your business requirements, be it in finance, healthcare, e-commerce, or any other sector.

The ecosystem around Java and Kotlin, including Spring, Hibernate, and JetBrains’ suite of tools, offers robust frameworks and development tools. This ecosystem not only accelerates the development process but also ensures high-quality, maintainable, and upgradable software solutions.

From web applications to Android mobile apps, Java and Kotlin’s versatility covers a wide spectrum of development needs. This flexibility allows us to tailor solutions that align perfectly with your business requirements, be it in finance, healthcare, e-commerce, or any other sector.

Finally, Java and Kotlin are not static; they evolve continuously, embracing new technology trends and paradigms. In recent years, Java has shown substantial development within the framework of currently popular functional programming. Since September 2017, new versions of Java have been released every six months, introducing performance improvements, bug fixes, and adding new functionality to the language. By choosing these languages, your business benefits from software solutions that are modern and adaptable to future technological advancements.

At ID AL. Solutions, our commitment to Java and Kotlin is rooted in their proven capability to deliver robust, efficient, and scalable solutions. By leveraging these languages, we ensure that your software not only meets current needs but is also geared for future challenges and opportunities. Let us help you unlock the potential of Java and Kotlin paired with a relevant front-end language for your successful business endeavors.

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Prioritizing People: The Key to Success in Software Development

5 min read
ID AL. Solutions Team

In the dynamic world of software development, the key to achieving outstanding results lies not just in technical proficiency, but significantly in the people who bring these technologies to life. As a forward-thinking software development company, ID AL. Solutions firmly believes that the foundation of success is anchored in selecting high-quality candidates who excel not only in technical skills but also, and most importantly, in soft skills, allowing to build a solid foundation for a close-knit, collaborative team.

Soft skills, such as communication, teamwork, problem-solving, and adaptability, are vital for IT specialists. These skills enhance the ability to understand client needs, collaborate effectively with team members, and navigate the complexities of software development projects. By focusing on these skills, we ensure that our teams are not just technically sound but also adept at managing the nuances of project dynamics, thereby significantly contributing to the success of each project.

People possessing such important skills usually form a productive and integral team. A close-knit team is a powerhouse of innovation and productivity, as has been repeatedly demonstrated in our projects. This is why ID AL. Solutions places immense value on fostering a work environment where team members form strong, collaborative relationships. This emphasis on team dynamics leads to a more cohesive unit that can efficiently tackle complex projects and deliver high-quality results. It’s not just about working together; it’s about growing together.

At the heart of ID AL. Solutions’ ethos is the deep respect and commitment we hold for our employees. We invest in our employees’ professional and personal growth, offering ongoing training, mentorship, and opportunities for advancement. This investment not only enriches their career paths but also ensures that our clients benefit from a team that is constantly evolving and improving. Additionally, despite our agility and diverse client base, we remain committed to maintaining a healthy, non-toxic work environment. We carefully select projects and clients, ensuring that our employees are placed in environments that are conducive to their growth and well-being.

Convinced that our approach of selecting team players and creating a healthy work environment contributes to high performance and long-term success, we extend these benefits to our clients through our outstaffing service, helping them recruit high-quality specialists and good people for their teams. This allows other companies to benefit from the highly skilled and well-rounded professionals from Ukraine. Outstaffing services in ID AL. Solutions are tailored to meet the diverse needs of various international companies. Our European partners continually express their satisfaction with the performance and professionalism of the employees we provide. Our teams, known for their technical acumen and soft skills, seamlessly integrate into diverse project environments, adding value and driving success for our clients.

In conclusion, our company’s approach to software development is centered around people. By selecting high-quality candidates with a balance of technical skills and soft skills, building a close-knit team, and continuously investing in our employees, we ensure that our company remains at the forefront of the industry. Our outstaffing services further extend this excellence to other companies, showcasing our commitment to quality, collaboration, and innovation in the world of software development.

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The Transformative Power of AI

7 min read
AI brain

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has transformed from a buzzword into a fundamental tool for businesses across various domains. From global tech giants to local start-ups, the adoption of AI is visible everywhere. The shift from traditional methods to AI-infused operations is no longer a luxury but a necessity for companies that aim to remain competitive and innovative.

The AI Revolution in the Corporate World

Companies worldwide are rapidly integrating AI into their daily operations, and the results are telling. AI-driven automation handles repetitive tasks efficiently, thereby freeing up human resources for more strategic roles. With the capability of processing vast amounts of data in split seconds, AI systems can offer real-time insights, predictive analytics, and even prescriptive recommendations, enabling businesses to make more informed decisions faster.

For instance, Netflix utilizes AI-driven algorithms to recommend shows and movies to users based on their viewing history, personalize thumbnails, predict viewer patterns to determine periods of network traffic congestion in various regions for smart content caching, and forecast user growth rate. This strategy boosts user engagement, retains subscribers, ensures service consistency, and results in an impressive 3.5% churn rate, saving an estimated $1 billion annually.

Similarly, automobile industry giants, like Tesla, are integrating AI to develop autonomous vehicles. AI systems process data from vehicle sensors and make split-second decisions that can help avoid accidents and navigate the road.

In industries like logistics, AI simplifies complex supply chain management, optimizes routes, predicts maintenance needs, and anticipates fluctuations in demand. Forecasts suggest that the industry will experience a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 43% in AI adoption, achieving a market value of 6.5 billion USD by 2024. For example, DHL, a leading logistics operator, uses AI for route optimization, predicting package delivery times more accurately by analyzing traffic data, weather patterns, and other variables. Moreover, DHL’s incorporation of Machine Learning algorithms optimizes warehousing for major e-commerce players, mitigating supply issues and augmenting facility productivity by 30% during peak times.

Among these giants, our company ID AL. Solutions is making significant strides with its expertise in full-cycle development of AI and ML-based applications, especially in Logistics and MedTech (FemTech). One of our standout stories is Dr. GyneCom – a groundbreaking AI-driven gynecological initiative. This innovative platform embodies how AI can be leveraged to address pressing healthcare challenges, while also bringing about significant economic benefits.

Dr. GyneCom: Changing the Landscape of Women’s Health

Gynecological health is a concern shared by millions. Traditional methods of detection and treatment can often be invasive, costly, and, most importantly, not timely enough. Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer still claims hundreds of thousands of lives each year due to late diagnosis.

Dr. GyneCom aims to change this narrative by enabling timely and regular screening at home. Its AI-driven diagnostic capabilities can detect early signs of cervical cancer with a high level of accuracy, surpassing even seasoned medical professionals in accuracy, and making early intervention possible. The underlying deep learning algorithm swiftly identifies cervical pathologies from colposcopic images with over 90.5% accuracy, offering specific pathology probability estimates exceeding 96.5% based on The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology.

Such a proactive approach to cervical screening has a ripple effect. Early detection not only saves lives but also substantially reduces the financial burden on the healthcare system. The U.S. alone spends around $8 billion annually on cervical cancer treatments. With solutions like Dr. GyneCom, a significant portion of this could be channeled toward preventive measures.

Moreover, our solution is designed to be accessible to women of all ages and income levels. All that the patient will need is a portable cervicoscope we call “Lily”, which is to become the world’s first gynecological device for home use, with a price tag under $50. All the necessary software will come for free. Therefore, by making essential healthcare services universally accessible, we aim to significantly improve women’s global living standards.

This is just one example of our diverse experience working with AI and Machine Learning. As our team continually broadens its expertise, we work across different business domains, striving to provide our clients with high-quality solutions to their business problems using modern and effective approaches. We eagerly await opportunities to share our knowledge and experience with you and take on the implementation of your project regardless of scale and complexity. For those interested in Dr. GyneCom and eager to assist in the upgrowth of this project, thereby contributing to global humanitarian prosperity, we welcome your outreach.

In Conclusion

The integration of AI in daily business operations is not a fleeting trend; it’s the future. From entertainment to e-commerce, transport to healthcare, AI’s footprint is evident. This is why ID AL. Solutions allows its clients to benefit from the transformative power of AI, employed with vision and purpose. As AI continues to evolve and find applications in various sectors, its role in enhancing productivity, saving lives, and driving economic growth becomes ever more pivotal.

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Top-5 Advantages of Ukrainian Software Development Services for Business

5 min read
developer workingIn today’s rapidly evolving technological landscape, businesses face the challenge of staying competitive and meeting customer demands. One way to address these challenges is by leveraging the expertise and capabilities of software development services. Among the many options available, Ukrainian software development services have gained significant recognition for their excellence and value. In this article, we will explore 5 compelling reasons why businesses should consider partnering with Ukrainian software development companies.

1. Highly Skilled IT Professionals

Ukraine boasts a rich pool of highly skilled and experienced IT professionals. The country has a robust educational system, producing a large number of IT graduates every year. Ukrainian software developers are known for their strong technical proficiency, problem-solving abilities, and innovative mindset. They possess expertise in a wide range of technologies, including web development, mobile app development, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and more. Businesses can benefit from the vast knowledge and skills of Ukrainian developers to build cutting-edge software solutions.

2. Cost-Effectiveness

One of the key advantages of choosing Ukrainian software development services is the cost-effectiveness it offers. Compared to many Western European and North American countries, the cost of software development in Ukraine is significantly lower. This allows businesses to access top-tier development talent at a fraction of the cost, enabling cost savings without compromising on quality. With lower development costs, companies can allocate resources to other crucial areas of their business, such as marketing, sales, or research and development.

3. Strong English Proficiency

Effective communication is vital for successful collaboration in software development projects. Ukrainian developers have a high level of English proficiency, which facilitates seamless communication and minimizes misunderstandings or misinterpretations. Clear and efficient communication between businesses and development teams is crucial for project success, ensuring that requirements are understood and implemented accurately.

4. Cultural Compatibility and Time Zone Advantage

Ukraine shares cultural compatibility with many Western countries, making collaboration between businesses and development teams more seamless. Similar work ethics, business practices, and professional values contribute to smoother project management and overall partnership. Additionally, Ukraine is situated in a favorable time zone, allowing for overlapping working hours with both European and North American clients. This eliminates delays in communication and ensures timely project updates and support.

5. Proven Track Record

Ukrainian software development companies have built a strong reputation for delivering high-quality solutions to clients worldwide. Many Ukrainian IT companies have successfully completed complex and innovative projects for both startups and established enterprises. Their portfolio often includes a diverse range of industries, demonstrating adaptability and expertise across different domains. The track record of success and client satisfaction reinforces the trustworthiness and reliability of Ukrainian software development services. Partnering with Ukrainian software development services offers numerous benefits for businesses looking to enhance their technological capabilities. The availability of highly skilled IT professionals, cost-effectiveness, strong English proficiency, cultural compatibility, and a proven track record are all compelling reasons to consider Ukrainian software development companies. By leveraging their expertise, businesses can unlock new opportunities, accelerate their growth, and stay at the forefront of technological advancements in today’s competitive business landscape. This is why we invite you to utilize our services for the development, support, or testing of your product, enabling your business to fully leverage the benefits of high-quality Ukrainian IT services. No matter where in the world you are reading these lines from, we always look forward to receiving your feedback. Work with Ukraine, work with ID AL. Solutions, and conquer new horizons. Entrust us with your technical dream, and we will provide you with our skills and experience.

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Alive And Strong: Ukraine’s IT Sector In 2022

5 min read
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It’s no secret that Ukraine is one of the largest and fastest-growing IT job markets in Eastern Europe. Its pool of experts, already numbering over 300,000, is making an impressive contribution to the country’s economic performance – the value of Ukrainian exports of IT services in 2021 grew by a whopping 36% to about $6.8 billion (4% of GDP). These numbers are constantly rising despite the harsh realities of 2022.

At present, the IT market has stabilized and adapted to work in war conditions. On the contrary, IT has become one of the few sectors that fully function and actively participate in the economic and volunteer component of life in Ukraine. Quality, adaptability, and the desire to be useful – are the main reasons why Ukraine remains one of the key specialized centers for software development and support, and ID AL. Solutions is one of the links in this powerful chain, made from the invincible Azov steel.

Markets are exchanging specialists, requirements, and best practices. The difference between the global and Ukrainian markets is disappearing. Ten years ago, Ukrainian IT companies rarely had many foreign clients, but now this is a common norm, or rather a prerequisite, confirming the relevance of the company’s experience.

Clients choose Ukrainians also because our specialists are becoming increasingly competitive in the global market. More and more educational information is becoming available, and more online lectures and conferences are being held in different parts of the world. IT is literally becoming mainstream for the youth of Ukraine, and the competition for the department of Information Technology in our universities or for work in an IT company is increasing exponentially. The information field of Ukrainian and Western styles of business has merged into one whole, despite the kilometers and time zones that separate us.

We are witnessing rather even a reverse trend. Often, it is we who occupy the positions of top technical experts in foreign companies, and our point of view is decisive when choosing a technology stack for a particular project or when solving a particular non-standard task. Of course, such trust must be earned by months, and sometimes even years of impeccable work and the manifestation of professional competence. That is why we strive to constantly expand our “Zeno circles”, moving towards new knowledge in artificial intelligence, reactive programming, the latest design trends, IoT development, and more.

It is worth noting the irresistible desire of Ukrainian IT specialists to work, ignoring all the difficulties of the military situation, from a blackout to the likelihood of an enemy missile hit, from loss of Internet connection to long lines for basic goods. Paradoxically, all the members of our team, like most of the familiar fellow craftsmen, despite all these difficulties, have become even more organized and efficient, discarded bad habits, eradicated waste of time, and abandoned most of the weekends and holidays. After all, the main motivation for us is the work for the benefit of Ukraine, support the economic front, and active volunteering, which is often carried out at the keyboard. Therefore, our specialists first take care of setting up their workspace, buying power generators and charging stations, installing Starlinks and backup communication sources, and only then think about personal safety. To be honest, it is hard to remember the last time our team went down to the shelter as sometimes a fascinating conversation with partners or an interesting task drowns out all the sirens, and we don’t even suspect what is happening around.

Harsh realities have made us more motivated, and total self-organization – more effective. Is war the engine of progress? We don’t believe it, and we never will. This is a terrible, destructive embodiment of weakness and craziness. But the war became another powerful impulse for the development of IT in Ukraine and ID AL. Solutions team has become an integral part of this movement. We would even say the best part, and we are happy to prove it to you.

No matter where in the world you are reading these lines, we are always waiting for your message. Work with Ukraine, work with ID AL. Solutions, conquer new frontiers. Trust us with your technical dream, and we will trust you with our skills, experience, and impeccable results.

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Cervical Uteri Pathology. Current Trends And New Opportunities For Early Diagnosis

5 min read
talking to a doctor

According to World Health Organization (WHO), cervical cancer is one of the most serious threats to women’s lives. By various estimates, there are more than a million women suffering from this malignant disease worldwide. In 2020 alone, cervical cancer took the lives of more than 342,000 women.

In 2020, WHO approved the Global Strategy for cervical cancer elimination. The main goals of the program, called “90-70-90”, will completely save humanity from the problem of cervical cancer within the next 100 years. This is a 90% vaccination rate of the human papillomavirus (HPV) for girls under the age of 15 (before the sexual activity begins); accessibility for at least 70% of women of reproductive age to highly effective methods of screening (diagnosis) of cervical cancer and, finally, providing treatment for at least 90% of women diagnosed with cervical disease. [1]

The main aim that we set ourselves when writing this article is to once again remind the available and recommended methods for screening cervical pathology, and share our best practices in this direction.

The Problem

The generally recognized types of cervical screening, i.e., methods for the primary diagnosis of cervical pathology are visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA); cytology (PAP smear test), and HPV testing. Moreover, in all cases where a cervical pathology is detected during a screening study, a confirmation of the clinical diagnosis by colposcopic examination and/or taking a targeted cervical biopsy is required. That is why, in achieving the targets set by WHO, the solution of two main tasks at the national and global levels is of key importance. Firstly, this is a solution to the problem of accessibility of wide female population groups to effective methods for diagnosing cervical pathology. Secondly, the professional training level of specialists conducting relevant examinations.

From our point of view, the problems that women in the target group have with the opportunity to gain access to cervical screening are primarily due to the fact that the vast majority of women with cervical cancer, according to the WHO statistics, lived (and live now!) in low- and middle-income countries. So about 90% of the total number of cases of cervical cancer are registered in the countries of Central and South America, East Africa, South, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. [2]

The second most difficult problem to implement is the maximum objectification of the chosen diagnostic method.

In this regard, in the area of our interest lies the objectification of a visual method for diagnosing cervix pathology, such as a colposcopic examination. We agree with the thesis that during the period of maximum objectification of the processed data, colposcopy is a dying art but it remains an integral part of measures to prevent cervical cancer from ever developing. So, in the United States, colposcopy continues to be widely used in various medical settings, including academic and non-academic institutions, primary health care settings in urban and rural areas, and by the way, continues to be funded by both private and public resources [3]. The study itself is usually examined by experienced specialists (65% physicians, 36% advanced practice clinicians (APC), i.e., nurse practitioners and paramedics). [4]

Nevertheless, colposcopy is a rather subjective diagnostic method that requires training and constant practice of using the method to obtain the appropriate competencies. Thus, according to the scientific literature, the frequency of false-negative results (missed squamous intraepithelial / high-grade malignancy invasive cancer) during colposcopy ranges from 13% to 69%. [5, 6]

That is why attempts are being made to improve the diagnostic properties of colposcopy by developing new additional technologies that use the biochemical and morphological changes present in dysplastic (atypical) cells of the cervix.

There are three main areas of modern developments: fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy, dynamic spectral imaging, and optical coherence tomography. In spite of that, it is worth emphasizing that only one of them, namely dynamic spectral imaging, has received FDA approval and is sold in the United States.

Our Solution

Having analyzed the abovementioned information, we have focused our efforts specifically on the development of an effective and available screening methodology that will help women who do not have the opportunity to undergo face-to-face screening in a medical institution, for example, women living in remote and/or areas that are difficult to access for modern medical technologies.

Our proposed method of primary/intermediate screening of cervical pathology can be represented by the following scheme:

patient -> device that allows a woman to take a picture of the cervix without outside help -> Internet access -> website/application -> double assessment of the resulting image: a medical expert and our artificial intelligence algorithm -> personal recommendation for the patient.

At this stage, we can already offer a prototype of our device, which has passed the experimental research stage and showed impressive results. Intravaginal system “Lily” with a working camera and backlight.

Lily intravaginal system
Lily Intravaginal System

The machine learning model developed by our team is called “Dr. Gynecom”. It is trained with the Keras framework and TensorFlow backend. According to the scientific requirements, a model with two outputs was chosen – for segmentation and classification of the input image. The U-Net architecture was taken as a basis, where the decoder is a common part for both outputs.

Segmentation detects the location of pathologies, and classification indicates the accuracy of the presence of a particular pathology shown in the processed image. Thus, the application draws the doctor’s attention to problematic areas of the cervix with the result of two separate branches of the model algorithm, while the patient is able to receive a personally verified conclusion and a recommendation. The model was trained on the basis of 1500 colposcopic images marked by a high-category practice doctor. Various augmentation algorithms were used to increase the dataset. As a result, the accuracy of the trained data for segmentation exceeds 90.5% and 96.5% – for classification.

Analysis processed by Dr. Gynecom AI algorithm vs gynecologist marking
Analysis processed by Dr. Gynecom AI algorithm vs gynecologist marking

We invite you to see the results of our work at Dr. GyneCom website .


  1. Global strategy to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem; 17 November 2020.
  2. World Cancer Report. Edited by Stewart BW, Wild CP. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization; 2014.
  3. Mayeaux EJ, Novetsky AP, Chelmow D, Choma K, Garcia F, Liu AH, Papasozomenos T, Einstein MH. Systematic Review of International Colposcopy Quality Improvement Guidelines. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2017 Oct;21(4):249-257.
  4. ASCCP Colposcopy Standards: How Do We Perform Colposcopy? Implications for Establishing Standards. Alan G Waxman 1, Christine Conageski, Michelle I Silver, Candice Tedeschi, Elizabeth A Stier, Barbara Apgar, Warner K Huh, Nicolas Wentzensen, L Stewart Massad, Michelle J Khan, Edward J Mayeaux Jr, Mark H Einstein, Mark H Schiffman, Richard S Guido. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2017 Oct;21(4):235-241.
  5. Davies KR, Cantor SB, Cox DD, Follen M. An alternative approach for estimating the accuracy of colposcopy in detecting cervical precancer. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126573.
  6. Wentzensen N, Walker JL, Gold MA, Smith KM, Zuna RE, Mathews C, Dunn ST, Zhang R, Moxley K, Bishop E, Tenney M, Nugent E, Graubard BI, Wacholder S, Schiffman M. Multiple biopsies and detection of cervical cancer precursors at colposcopy. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 01;33(1):83-9.
  7. Павлюченко М. І. Акушерство і гінекологія. Фонові, передракові та злоякісні захворювання шийки матки : навчальний посібник для самостійної роботи студентів IV, VI курсів медичних факультетів спеціальностей «Медицина», «Педіатрія» / М. І. Павлюченко. – Запоріжжя : ЗДМУ, 2021. – 125 с.


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